The wake of modernity in Spain cannot be separated from its production of violence and civil wars for at least two centuries. From the history of imperialism and the Carlist wars, the Spanish Civil War, and fascist mobilizations and dictatorship, violence has crafted the imagination of Spanish political modernity. Indeed, as philosopher José Luis Villacañas has argued, Spain’s unique and uneven process of modernization is due, in part, to a historical wound that has repeatedly produced and legitimized forms of expressive, structural, and imperial violence. In this sense, Spain is a case in point to understand the tension between sovereignty and dictatorship, and the rule of law and imperial domination that have permeated the Spanish state and civil relations well into the second half of the twentieth century. Yet, while the inscription of violence has been widely discussed in an array of critical studies regarding the Spanish Civil War (1936-39) and Franco’s dictatorship (1939-1975), nuanced representations of violence have begun to emerge in Spain that move beyond its national borders, interrogating transnational spaces, concepts, and peoples. With these new and potentially unexplored forms of violence in mind, this panel welcomes papers in dialogue with modern and contemporary Spanish cultural production, including film, literature, performance and visual arts, that engage with diverse if not allusive forms of violence. In doing so, this panel invites scholars to reflect on this broad concept through a plurality of evolving forces within the socio-political Spanish context that may include but are not limited to questions of globalization, gender, race, urban space, citizenship, care, and separatist movements. The goal of this panel is not to reject traditional notions of understanding violence but to shed light on new ways in which this concept impacts the social, cultural, and political imaginaries of modern and contemporary Spain.